There’s no single cause which results in a cyclone, but it’s a chain of events that finally ends up as a Cyclone.
Let’s analyse those chain of events one by one :
- A large warm and still ocean area with temperature above 27ºC formed. Due to this, the air above these area get heated and therefore it rises up.
- The risen air, would make vacancy of air in that region i.e low pressure area.
- The air around rushes to fill that vacant area.
- The air when it rises would also carry a great amount of moisture in the atmosphere, i.e the water evaporated and turned into vapour is also carried with the air.
- This moist air on reaching some height, cools down, condensation happens and clouds are formed.
- The above said processes continues and eventually the clouds became heavy.
- The resulting condensation would release latent heat, that would again heat the water in those area. Hence it acts like a self-feeding mechanism.
- The air that arrives from vast areas to this area of low pressure in the form of wind, would get deflected and eventually twists due to Coriolis effect.
- The cyclone is formed.
Due to the Coriolis effect, the rotation direction of cyclone is clockwise in the southern and anti-clockwise in the northern hemisphere. There’s an area in the middle of the these twisting winds, called the eye of cyclone, the pressure there will be extremely low. The more the low-pressure in the eye, more speed the winds around have.
Cyclones are generally formed in the Tropical region, since these area has sufficient sunlight to heat the water.
The cyclone which gets into land, would be deprived from energy (heat from ocean surface) and dies.
Coriolis Effect: Since Earth is spherical, when it rotates, the area of equator rotates faster than other areas. So if something thrown from south or north pole area, it has to take a diverged path to reach a particular point in equator. This is because, equator might have travelled more distance, than polar region. This also affects winds, that are travelling trans-latitude. It would get deflected while reaching destination. (somewhere in equator region).
Condensation : Water vapour is the gaseous state of water i.e. its molecules has good kinetic energy, due to heating. Condensation is the process of water vapour turning back to water, when it comes into contact with a, cloud-condensation-nuclei (dust) in atmosphere. Water supplied with heat turned it into Water vapour, and hence water vapour turning back to water, should release heat, this heat is the Latent heat here. Clouds are very tiny droplets of water formed by condensation, that are very lite enough that it floats.
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